Animals

Carlino Characteristics

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What you need to know, from birth to three months of life.

The first three months of life are of special importance for the life of the puppy. Know what is the normal behavior of your body what are the anomalies that may occur, how serious they are, be warned about the normal behavior of the dog in what it does to the proper care of its offspring and how to act in case it is not a "Good mother", are some of the important issues that Dr. María Elena Loza, professor of the Chair of Obstetrics and Pathology of Reproduction (FCV-UBA), addresses in this comprehensive report.

What condition are the puppies at birth?

They are born with their eyes and ears closed. They don't walk, but rather, they crawl. The back legs, they practically do not move them, they only move in search of heat with the front legs. Both the nervous and muscular systems are not fully developed, and they will just be formed over the course of the days.

When they move in search of the mother, don't they, then guided by smell, hearing or sight?

Exactly. When the puppy is left alone it usually begins to crawl in the form of circles looking for a source of heat. Keep in mind that the breast area of ​​the mother while breastfeeding, has a higher temperature than the rest of the body and to that place the puppy moves.

How many days does it take to open your eyes?

It depends on the breed and there are even individual variations but, in general, they do so between ten and quice days of life, although sometimes they take a little longer. But, the fact that his eyelids are detached does not mean that they see clearly. After twenty-five days they begin to define images because, in addition to having their eyes closed at birth, the retina of the eyeball is also not sufficiently developed.

And how is the process with the ear?

In general, puppies can receive from the external environment in which strong sound waves live, approximately twenty days later. Until that period, practically, they have no notion, through sound, of what is happening around them.

What happens if your claims for heat or assistance are not taken care of?

If they do not find a source of satisfaction, they emit sound signals, which are known as "homeless moans."

During the first days, are they fed exclusively with breast milk?

Would be ideal. They are very important, especially, the blowjobs that are made during the first days because through the colostrum, which is not yet the milk itself, the puppies receive antibodies to defend themselves against the virosic diseases.

Is this independent of whether the mother is properly vaccinated, or not?

No, a dog with her vaccinations a day will give her puppies more antibodies than another that has them defeated. And, this is also important because at that early age they are not in a position to create their own antibodies.

When should maternal feeding be supplemented?

When the mother does not have enough milk or the lettuce is very numerous, it can be given to the puppies, from day twelve or thirteen, regardless of whether they are still sucking, porridge foods. In normal cases, it begins by offering a good balance at approximately twenty days, which is when the amount of milk in the dog begins to decrease and the puppies require more food. (It is interesting to note how wild bitches behave. They nurse their puppies for twenty days and from that moment, they go out to look for food. And they do it as follows: they get food by hunting, ingesting it and then, when they are with their puppies they regurgitate it so that they can thus incorporate them into their body)

How should the mother's diet be during breastfeeding?

Since this is a period of great wear, it is advisable to provide them with balanced food of very good quality (many times, they are given food for puppies, because they are richer in protein), and in all the amount that the dog wants. Unlike the time of pregnancy, it is necessary to take care that you do not overfeed to avoid reaching the birth with excessive weight. But, during breastfeeding, the food must be "ad libitum" (without limits)

How is the behavior of a good mother detected?

In the first place, when their children are born, they take care of ingesting the membranes that cover the puppy, cutting the umbilical cord and licking their entire body to stimulate the respiratory and circulatory system of newborns. It also cleans them to eliminate adhesions or liquids that could remain on their bodies and cause infections. (In the wild, also the hygiene of the newborn puppy is done to prevent possible predators smell and attack them)

Can the mother's tongues be compared with the slapping of babies when they are born?

Something similar happens. The dog licks the newborns, with enough energy, even, scrambles them on the floor. This causes a certain resistance in the puppies and this, in some way and very slightly, also serves them to exercise their muscular system. In addition, the licks he makes on the belly and around the sphincters of his children is to stimulate urination and defecation.

How long does the dog perform this task?

About three weeks. Some puppies begin to mobilize their digestive and urinary tract, a little earlier. Anyway, good mothers continue to clean the puppies, for longer.

What if the bitch does not fulfill this cleaning task?

In that case and I clarify that it is not usual, the owner of the puppies has to take care of the task. To do this, with a cotton swab dipped in warm and squeezed water you should massage the pup's genital and perineal area to help them make their needs. This job should be done every two to three hours after the pups finish breastfeeding and until the puppies do not need help to fulfill their organic functions. The owner must also clean the paridera.

Do the maternal characteristics of female dogs depend on the breeds?

No, they are individual.

Is it convenient to heat the environment where the puppies are?

Stoves or heaters are not recommended. If necessary, it can be placed, on the sides of the paridera, bags of warm water or bottles of hot water wrapped in cloth, so that the puppies are in the center and the mother occupies one of the sides.

What is the ideal ambient temperature?

The one that oscillates between 21º and 28º, but you have to be careful, it can be too high for mothers, especially for long-haired breeds. This can cause them to move away from the puppies because their contact produces more heat. The solution would be to bring the temperature to about 20º, 22º and, in case the mother bothers you, lower it a little. To the puppies, unless it is an excessive cold, the proximity of the dog is enough shelter.

But when the dog is not in the paridera?

Then, the dogs get together, stack among themselves, and avoid heat losses.

Characteristics of the Carlino - Pug

  • Height at the cross: about 35 cm
  • Weight: about 8 kg
  • Cap: beige (silver or apricot) or black, mask and black ears, sometimes with a black stripe along the back, from the occiput to the tail (saddle mark)
  • Average life: from ten to twelve years
  • Character: calm, sociable, sensitive, very close to its owners, alive and very playful
  • Relationship with children: very good
  • Relationship with other dogs: good
  • Aptitudes: service dog
  • Space needs: well adapted to life inside the home
  • Food of the Carlino - Pug: 200 g daily of complete dry food
  • Arrangement: null
  • Maintenance cost: moderate

Described by some breed fans as "the perfect blend of canine appeal and melancholy," the Pug It will immediately keep its owners entertained for endless hours with their personality similar to that of a clown. The property of a Pug It is usually transmitted from parents to children and in a family there are several generations that have had, very happily, copies of this breed. It is a dog with a great personality who is as comfortable living in a large house as in a small one. Some owners call them "little people," and when this breed is known it is easy to understand why.

The barking of Pug It is surprisingly serious in relation to its size. In fact, it is usually a pretty good watchdog, ready to bark when the doorbell rings or when someone comes home. If you are a light sleeper, it will be good to keep in mind that although not all Pug snore, many do.

The Pug It is an exceptionally clean small dog that barely has a dog smell. Some consider the Pug It is a very suitable breed for elderly and / or disabled people, although it should not be forgotten that, like all dogs, you need to do some exercise. Taking everything into account, the Pug He seems to be happy being what his owners need him to be. You can feel satisfied by curling and forming a ball at your feet while the owner watches TV or makes a sock. You will enjoy playing animatedly with a ball or it can also be a friendly clown, thus entertaining your home audience.

Although the origin of the breed is in China, its personality differs quite a lot from that of many other races in the Far East, since it shows no air of superiority. The Pug He is a unique breed in many ways and has numerous fans due, in part, to his rogue sense of humor and his way of being so irresistible and attractive.

Physical characteristics

The Pug It is small, square, plump and has well-combined proportions, in addition to a compact musculature, which makes it a small and strong animal quite different from most dogs belonging to the group of miniature breeds. Their ideal weight is 6.3-8.1 kg, although some have a somewhat greater weight and, surely, few males will have to weigh less than 8.1 kg. Although the standard does not differentiate between the size of males and females, those are usually somewhat larger than females.

I should always remember that Pug They usually enjoy their food a lot and can be quite greedy. Thus, it is necessary to have a sufficiently strict control of your diet so that you do not end up being overweight. Once the Pug If you have acquired excessive weight, it will be extremely difficult for you to lose it.

The thorax of Pug It is wide and the body is implanted on strong limbs. The head, which is large, round, wrinkled and with dark and globular eyes is compensated in the back by the tail, which is of high implantation and tightly curled above the hip, being very desirable to have a double sliver .

  • Colors and layer

We can find Pug silver, apricot, fawn and black, although currently silver are scarce. Although not mentioned in the breed standard, the Pug Lions have a double layer, consisting of a weatherproof outer layer and a soft and insulating sublayer. In the Pug Black the cape is simple.

The colors are clearly defined and should have a black line (also called a "signal") that extends from the back of the head to the tail. The mask (or snout) should also be as black as possible, as well as the ears, the cheekbones, and the "diamond" (or "thumb spot") on the forehead.

Many breeders consider the overall quality of the Pug Current blacks is not as good as before. Anyway, there are still a handful of black copies of excellent quality capable of competing with the best and that are up to the previous copies. Unfortunately there are few breeders who dedicate themselves to Pug Black today, since the layer should be jet black and without any other color spots. Due to their color, the desirable wrinkles of the head should be deep and marked, and should be clearly seen.

The fur of Pug It is easy to care because it is smooth, fine and soft. It is a short and lustrous layer that should not be rough or woolly to the touch. The fur of Pug molt, although not as much as that of many other races. People with allergies should check, before acquiring a Pug, that your hair does not bother you. You should keep in mind that the dog will remain by your side for life, so you must make sure that you have made a good decision and have been well informed before deciding on a certain breed.

As for allergies, some Pug They suffer from flea allergy, so it is very important that you keep yours free of these parasites.

Due to the wrinkles of your head, special care should be taken to keep this area clean and thus avoid any accumulation of dirt that could cause skin irritations.

The curled tail of Pug It is natural and does not cut to look like this. In fact, it is not as short as you could imagine with a first impression, what happens is that it is very curled up.

Recently it has been seen that a few Pug They suffer a vertebral problem that seems to be caused by the curled tail. This is usually seen before the age of 12 months and can unfortunately cause the dog to be crippled.

Personality

This is a race that has great charm, dignity and intelligence, although like other intelligent races it can be quite stubborn. The Pug It is a race with a balanced temperament and a cheerful and vital mood. The friendship it shows is usually effusive, in fact, most of Pug They seem to be constantly delighted to meet people and show a special affection for children. However, although he is friendly to strangers, he dedicates maximum fidelity to his owner and his family.

The Pug It is a brave breed that, despite its tiny size, enjoys exercising outside the home and has a certain bold and sporting instinct that can sometimes lead to problems with other dogs. This is not intended to say that Pug They tend to be aggressive, although sometimes they may be due to jealousy.

Inside the house, at Pug There is nothing you like more than a warm temperature and comfort, in addition to the love and caresses that its owners provide.

The Pug and the children

The Pug They seem certainly happy when they are with children and, generally, the feeling is mutual. This is a breed that seems to be always ready for a little scramble, although, when they are with dogs, adults should always watch children. If they are taught to respect dogs, both they and the dogs Pug They can spend many happy hours in mutual company. However, adults should never allow either of them to get excited.

Health related concerns

Due to the flat snout of PugIt can suffer from respiratory problems and does not easily tolerate excessive heat. Anyway and in general, the Pug It is a reasonably healthy breed and can live for many years. It is also worth keeping in mind that it does not tolerate anesthesia well, so it will be good to tell the veterinarian if the dog is pending an operation.

The Pug, like any other brachycephalic breed, they may be susceptible to elongation of the soft palate. This breed has been bred for centuries to have a flat snout and wrinkled skin and, as a result, the soft palate tends to be wide and lax. As the dog gasps, the soft palate recedes into the larynx, so that the air cannot reach the lungs. Is this what causes the Pug They are very restless when the weather is very hot or after a lot of exercise.

Thus, it is necessary that you carefully monitor your Pug when the weather is hot and you are alert to any symptoms of fatigue while exercising. Danger symptoms are bulging eyes, staring eyes and head carried high in an effort to inspire more air. The dog may lose consciousness and stop breathing, although sometimes he will do it again after a few seconds, but not always.

It goes without mentioning that any dog ​​can suffer and even suffocate if it is left inside a car on a warm day, even with ventilation running. The Pug They have a greater tendency to be affected than most races, so be aware. Never leave Pug in the car and thus perhaps avoid this tragedy.

If your dog has the misfortune of suffering from heat exhaustion or heat stroke, ice should be placed on the head, face and body immediately. The dog should be kept as cool and calm as possible. Any Pug that seems especially susceptible to suffer the consequences of an elongated soft palate should not be used as a reproducer.

It is worth mentioning that whether your Pug you suffer from respiratory problems as if not, and the same can be applied to any other race, you should never be given food immediately before or after a strenuous exercise. Opinions differ, but when I exercise my dogs I like to give them an hour of rest before offering them food.

The Pug You should always have perfectly described eyes as if globular, but without being too bulky. Such eyes can lead to several problems since, due to their prominence, they are more conducive to suffering wounds or scratches due to dust and dirt that can get stuck in them. The good owners of a Pug they will ensure that there are no rose bushes or any other plant with thorns in the garden.

Another eye problem that the Pug It is the entropion. This implies that one or both eyelids are turned inward, thereby contacting the eyeball. As a result, an irritation in the cornea is caused, which can be painful. Entropion can lead to eyelashes turned inwards, although in a race with wrinkled skin such as PugThis can also happen slightly if the dog suddenly loses weight.

For any symptoms of entropion, whatever cause is suspected, veterinary help should be sought. In some cases surgery is necessary.

The patellar dislocation, which consists of dislocation of the patella, is caused because it moves over a shallow cleft. It is a hereditary defect that can occur in Pug. Dogs with bad hips or with patellar dislocation should not be used as breeders.

Another problem that has affected the Pug It is generally associated with large breeds. This is hip dysplasia, in which the articulation of the femoral head with the hip acetabulum does not fit well, causing lameness and pain. Fortunately, hip dysplasia is not as frequent in this breed as it was once.

  • Good overall health at home

The anal glands of Pug they can cause problems if they are not emptied periodically. In nature, the dog empties them regularly to mark the territory, but in the case of domestic dogs this function is no longer necessary, so that its content can accumulate and cause an obstruction, causing discomfort and pain to the dog. The anal glands, which are located on both sides of the anus, will need to be emptied if we see that the Pug drag your butt on the floor or if you go around several times to relieve the pain.

Although care must be taken not to harm you, these glands can be emptied by gently pressing on both sides of the anus and using a cotton gauze or ball or a tissue to collect their stinking contents. If we allow the anal glands to swell, abscesses can form, which will cause pain to the dog and the need for veterinary attention.

The Pug they can do all kinds of pranks, so it is not uncommon for them to swallow, inadvertently, some poisonous substance in the course of their investigations. Obviously, an urgent visit to the veterinarian will be necessary if this happens, but, if possible, when you call him, he should tell you what substance he has ingested, since specific treatments may be necessary. If it is necessary to make the dog vomit (and this is not always the case when poisoning is suffered), a small lump of sodium carbonate administered orally will have an immediate effect. As an alternative, a small spoonful of salt or mustard dissolved in water will have a similar effect, although they may be a little more difficult to administer and their effect will not be as rapid.

It is not uncommon for puppies of this breed to suffer spasmodic attacks while their teeth are coming out. They are not usually serious and are very short: they are caused simply by the pain caused by teething. Of course, you should make sure that the cause is not more serious, although giving the puppy something hard to bite will usually solve this problem.

If you want to know more about the Pug We recommend the publication of the publishing house Hispano Europea Pug Excellence Series:

Everything you should know about pug carlino

It owes the name Carlino to the famous Italian actor of the 18th century Carlo Bertinazzi (Carlin), probably because his appearance, when he played the character of a harlequin with a black mask, reminds of the carlino's mask.

As for the term pug, its origin is more uncertain, the thesis that refers to which pug comes from the word predominates pugnus, which means fist in Latin, because its nose resembles that of a human fist. On the other hand, there are those who think that pug was the colloquial way that was used in England in the 18th century to refer to dogs.

This breed of dogs has its origin in the East and more specifically in China. This is backed, among other circumstances, by the great resemblance that this puppy has with the Pekingese as well as with the Chinese statuettes that are the symbol of the guardian of the altars and homes.

The first data on race are from the 16th century and are related to the aristocracy of the time. Not surprisingly, this race came to occupy a privileged place with people like the statutory William I, being one of his descendants who brought the first copies to England.

The Carlinos began to know its expansion in the seventeenth century, as copies of the breed spread from England and the Netherlands in the direction of a large number of European courts. It was then when pugs became the favorite race of high society. In this way other races such as bichones, poodles or epagneuls were left aside and the Carlinos became the inseparable companions of the ladies of high society who pretended to flaunt snobbery.

At the end of the 19th century, the popularity of the Pug Carlino began to decline, given that the ladies with high copete began to feel predilection for other breeds of the Pekingese dog style. In the last decade of the 70 began the recovery of its lost popularity, since the Dukes of Windsor were true lovers of these little ones. Since then and until today, its popularity has remained intact.

Characteristics and physical features

With a height at the cross of about 35 centimeters and a weight that ranges between 6 and 8 kilos, this lively and sensitive puppy has a series of general characteristics such as…

His head, which is considered large in proportion to the rest of the body, is very strong and round. In his face and neck very marked wrinkles are observed and it is not convenient to see a cleft in the skull. On his face you can see a kind of darker mask.

His snout It shows a slight bulge, without becoming too pronounced. It is a short, square, truncated snout and nothing upset. You can be sure that it is a carlino if it has remarkably defined wrinkles in that part of the face.

His eyes They are usually of a very dark brown hue, practically black and with a large shape. You will notice that they are bright and what is known as "bulging."

His ears they must be small, thin and black in color. You will find specimens with the so-called "pink ears", which are small, hanging and curved back leaving the auditory canal in sight. There are also specimens with “button ears”, which bend forward, sticking to the skull so that they cover the ear canal.

His neck It is thick and strong.

Her body It is compact and short. His chest It is wide and with good ribs. Your back it is matched from the cross to the high tail placement, not having to be curved or unbalanced.

Your limbs They are strong, parallel and straight.

His feet They do not have a shape that is too elongated or too round, maintaining an average. The fingers are separated and the nails are black.

It's tail It has its own name, which is none other than spiral. It is important that you form a compact loop in the upper hip area. Queues that have a double turn are highly valued.

Despite its small body, the Pug Carlino is a relatively fast dog that can even jump up to three times its own size.

Color and coat

Its fur is very easy to be soft and fine. It consists of a glossy and short layer that should not be woolly or rough to the touch. The pug molts his hair although not as much as other races. Allergies to dogs' hair will find it helpful to have an allergy test before adopting one of them. Your pet will be your companion throughout his life, so you should consider such a decision.

As for his colors There are examples of carlino pug of different shades such as silver, lioness, black, apricot or beige tones, although silver are not very common.

The lions have a double layer, consisting of an outer layer that withstands the weather quite well and an insulating and soft sublayer.

The colors are clearly defined. and they must have a black line, which they call "signal" which extends from the back of the head to the tail. The mask should also be an intense black, in the same way as the moles of the cheekbones, the ears or the "Thumb spot" of the forehead, which is also known as "Diamond".

Temperament

As a curiosity, we can point out that he is said to be “The perfect mix of canine appeal and melancholy”. It has the ability to know how to keep its owners perfectly entertained for endless hours with its clown spirit.

It is common that the property of a Carugian pug is transmitted from parents to children, so there are many families in which their different generations have shared happiness with copies of this breed.

Among the many advantages of it is the fact that they adapt equally well to live in a small house as in a large one. Considered "little people" by those who have the joy of housing them in their homes, they boast a great character, something that is easily understood when they are known.

If there is a characteristic feature of this breed, it is the severity of his bark if its size is taken into account. That is why he is reputed to be a good watchdog, which will bark as soon as the doorbell rings or a stranger wanders around the house. As for his snoring, to which we have already alluded, we must prevent future owners that not all Carlinos snore, but many of them, which should be taken into account by those who are light sleepers.

To the extent that it is a tremendously clean, quiet and almost dog-free small dog, many consider it the companion pet ideal for the elderly or disabled, who find in them an exceptional source of entertainment and love. This does not mean that you are exempt from needing exercise, but simply that you are not a race with as much activity craving as others.

Many things can be said about the carlino but not that it is a boring dog, although the truth is that it is not a pet that is easily excited. Faithful and dedicated to their masters, they are nothing scandalous, so visitors will be delighted with them.

Thus, this puppy surprises with its calm while it remains curled up at the feet of its owner when it is, for example, watching television. Then, of course, he also has some more “moved” moments when he has a great time doing antics or playing lively with a ball.

Although in origin it is a Chinese breed, its temperament has nothing to do with that of which other breeds that come from the Far East show off, since this puppy does not show a bit of an eagerness of superiority. That the pug carlino has many fans is not the result of chance, since his rogue sense of humor conquers, as does its particular character.

It follows that this excellent family dog ​​has quite unusual characteristics in small dogs, especially in regard to their level of reactivity and aggressiveness, which can hardly be noticed in them.

In Petyzoo we have found that it is a dog that is affectionate as a family, although perhaps somewhat less than other breeds. The royaltyHowever, it is a feature to highlight in them. To the extent that they are not too obedient, as in most races, the choice of a female can help to improve such expectation.

Tender companion, he is usually attentive to everything that happens in the house. His enthusiasm also attracts attention, along with the joy with which he perceives life. Very intelligent, they are sensitive to the tone of voice, so loud voices would be considered by them as a hard punishment. Therefore, the best attitude that an owner can take regarding this little one is a leisurely and calm performance, showing self-confidence and making him understand what the rules are.

Un aspecto que has de tener en cuenta antes de adoptar un ejemplar de pug carlino es que necesitan constante compañía, por lo que no es el perro adecuado para una persona que pase demasiado tiempo trabajando fuera de casa. En el caso de que permanezcan muchas horas solos llegarán a desarrollar ansiedad por separación.

Fuera de la casa hacen gala de un carácter osado y valiente, mientras que dentro de ella les fascina la comodidad y la temperatura suave, junto con los mimos de su dueño.

Relationship with children

Un pug puede ser muy feliz al lado de un niño y el sentimiento suele ser mutuo. Estos perritos estarán dispuestos siempre al juego, en el caso de que los niños de la casa también sepan respetar a su mascota y no haya demasiada excitación por ninguna de las partes.

Al tratarse de un perrito pequeño, los juegos, sobre todo aquellos en los que intervengan niños de corta edad, deberían estar convenientemente supervisados por un adulto, de modo que la mascota no resulte lesionada.

Feeding

Si quieres contar con una mascota sana y con el mejor de los aspectos, nada como ocuparte de que reciba una alimentación sana consistente en un pienso seco de calidad. Mientras siga siendo un cachorro debes elegir uno de entre la gama junior para pasar a otro de la gama adult cuando supere esta etapa.

Entre los problemas nutricionales más comunes que puede sufrir una mascota se encuentra el overweight, siendo el pug carlino una de las razas que tiende a padecerlo, por lo que es importante que te ciñas únicamente a las dosis que el veterinario te indique.

Appearance

El Pug es de 12 a 14 pulgadas de alto (a hombros) y pesa de 14 a 18 libras. Él tiene un pelaje corto, liso y brillante. Su pelaje puede ser cervatillo, negro, albaricoque o plateado.

Su pelaje solo requiere un cepillado ocasional. Él sera el único que se podía encontrar en la casa.

El Pug es una raza muy antigua, y se remonta a antes del 400 a. C. Él es de origen chino y está relacionado con el pequinés. Durante muchos siglos fue un compañero privilegiado en los monasterios budistas y en las cortes reales de Asia, y probablemente el primero en Europa durante el siglo XVI. Su nombre puede ser del latín “pugnus” o “puño”, o de una mascota popular del 1700. Se convirtió en el perro oficial de Holanda cuando salvó la vida del Príncipe Guillermo de Orange. Aparece en el trabajo de Goya y en pinturas de otros artistas famosos. En 1860, los británicos invadieron China y Pugs fueron enviados de regreso a Inglaterra. Primero fue exhibido en Inglaterra en 1886, y reconocido por el AKC en 1885. Su popularidad AKC fue 14 ° de 157 razas en 2007.

Para obtener informacion para adoptar uno de estps hermosos perritos da clic aqui .

El Pug es un perro amable, sensible, alegre, extrovertido, juguetón, leal y profundamente cariñoso

Historia del Carlino - Pug

Las teorías acerca del origen del Pug han provocado grandes debates a lo largo de los años. Algunos creían que la raza era originaria del Lejano Oriente, mientras que otros pensaban que fue en Europa. Actualmente se acepta, mayoritariamente, que el Pug tuvo su origen en China, desde donde pasó a Japón y más tarde a Europa. Es también bastante probable que el chato Pug, cruzado con otras razas europeas dolicocéfalas (de cráneo largo), sea antepasado de muchas otras razas braquicéfalas (de cráneo redondo).

En China existe, desde hace mucho tiempo, una raza canina llamada Happa (a veces se escribe Ha-pa), que es similar a un Pequinés con el pelo liso. De hecho, mucha gente cree que el Happa podría ser el antepasado del Pug. Los perros chatos son conocidos en China con el nombre de Lo-sze y, aunque puede que fueran conocidos en tiempos tan remotos como en el año 1115 a.C., no existen pruebas de su existencia hasta el año 663 a.C. El Lo-sze poseía unas características que lo distinguían claramente del Pequinés: su hocico era diferente, la capa era corta y las orejas eran pequeñas y en forma de hoja de parra. Hacia el año 732 d.C. leemos acerca de la existencia de un can pequeño y chato llamado perro Suchuan pai que fue enviado, junto con otros regalos, de Corea a Japón.

El nombre «Pug»

La palabra «Pai» fue utilizada para designar a este tipo de perro y es posible que a los oídos europeos este nombre se pareciera al que se utiliza actualmente en Occidente: «Pug». En 1731, se definía la palabra «pug» como el apodo de un mono o un perro. Los titís eran mascotas populares en esa época y es probable que la cara chata del Pug hiciera que compartieran ese nombre.

Otra posibilidad es que el nombre derive de la palabra latina pugnus, que significa «puño», ya que había gente que pensaba que la cara del Pug se parecía a un puño cerrado. La palabra «pug» o «pugge» era también un término cariñoso, aunque puede que también derivara de «Puck», lo que evoca imágenes shakesperianas de una cara traviesa.

En algunos países europeos, el Pug sigue siendo conocido con el nombre de «Mops», que procede de la palabra holandesa Mopshund. El verbo mopperen significa «refunfuñar» y puede que el nombre «Mops» se comenzara a utilizar debido al aspecto arrugado y con el ceño fruncido de este perro.

En Francia, el nombre utilizado fue el de Carlino, en honor a un conocido actor del siglo XVIII famoso por su papel como Arlequín. Se cree que en Francia se utilizó y se sigue utilizando el nombre Carlino debido a la máscara negra de esta raza.

La raza en China

En China, los perros eran frecuentemente tratados casi como miembros de la realeza, e incluso a algunos se les conferían títulos. Eran celosamente vigilados y muchos disponían de sirvientes que les cuidaban y procuraban que dispusieran de todas las comodidades. Por ello, el Pug era poseído, principalmente, por el círculo de la corte o por los miembros de las clases gobernantes y, con frecuencia, estos perros eran tratados como objetos preciosos.

The Pug disfrutó de una gran popularidad en China, por lo menos hasta el siglo XII, pero a partir de ahí el interés pareció decrecer y existen pocas menciones de esta raza hasta principios del siglo XVI.

El Pug llega a Occidente

Actualmente se acepta generalmente que el Pug tuvo su origen en Oriente y que acabó por llegar a Europa. Se parecía mucho a la raza que conocemos hoy día. Mucha gente creía que el Pug procedía de las razas de tipo Mastiff, con antepasados tales como los perros de pelea de la antigua Grecia. Ciertamente, en Europa se dieron algunos cruces extraordinarios, tiempo ha, con el Bulldog, entre otros, pero en China el objetivo era, claramente, criar perros tan fieles al tipo como fuera posible. Son estos perros los que supusieron una firme base para el Pug actual.

Antes de llegar a Occidente, el Pug era popular en toda Asia y parece que llegó hasta Europa pasando por Rusia. Se dice que la zarina Catalina la Grande de Rusia tenía un gran número de Pug y de loros en una misma habitación. Uno no puede sino imaginarse tal escena. Lo que es quizá igualmente fascinante es la imagen que nos podemos hacer al saber que varios de los perros de esta zarina la acompañaban siempre a la iglesia.

The Pug ha estado muy relacionado con Holanda, ya que ha sido muy popular en ese país, y al principio eran llamados «Mastiff Holandeses». Este nombre podría explicar la confusión que surgió acerca del origen de la raza. The Pug holandeses estaban, ciertamente, destinados a tener una gran influencia en su difusión por toda Europa.

La Compañía Holandesa de las Indias Orientales jugó un papel importante en el comercio con Oriente. Está claro que en muchos de los viajes de vuelta de los barcos se trajeron tanto Pug como Pequineses como preciado cargamento. Se dice que un Pug salvó la vida de Guillermo I de Nassau (llamado el Taciturno) cuando en Hermigny, alrededor de 1572, este rey se encontró con un ataque por sorpresa de las tropas españolas. When he Pug escuchó el rumor de las tropas, armó mucho escándalo, rascando y lloriqueando, y saltó encima del monarca para despertarle. A partir de entonces, Guillermo I siempre tuvo perros de este tipo y, como consecuencia, los Pug fueron la raza favorita en la corte holandesa.

El Pug llega a Inglaterra

Un nieto de Guillermo I de Nassau era Guillermo de Orange, y llegó a Inglaterra con su mujer, María, en 1688, para ocupar el trono inglés. Junto con la pareja vinieron muchos Pug. Cada uno llevaba un lazo naranja en torno a su cuello para denotar que pertenecían a la casa real de Orange. Esta raza pronto encontró aceptación en Inglaterra, donde fue conocida como el Pug holandés, aunque más tarde el nombre que se utilizó con mayor frecuencia fue el de Pug or Pug-dog.

En la Gran Bretaña dieciochesca el Pug se puso muy de moda no sólo en la corte, sino también entre la gente con un cierto rango social. De hecho, cuando las mujeres salían de casa era bastante frecuente que fueran acompañadas por un sirviente ataviado con un turbante y por un Pug. La reina Carlota, esposa del rey Jorge III (1760- 1820), era también muy aficionada a la raza y poseía muchos ejemplares, uno de los cuales aparece en un cuadro que se puede ver en Hampton Court. De todas formas, al final del reinado de Jorge IV, en 1830, el Pug ya no estaba de moda, y hacia mediados del siglo XIX su popularidad ya había declinado.

El declive del Pug no pasó desapercibido, en forma alguna, por el escritor Taplin, que escribió acerca de esta raza: «. no es útil para practicar ningún tipo de deporte, no apropiado para nada útil, susceptible a no tener pasiones dominantes. ». Estos comentarios no habrían servido, con toda seguridad, para potenciar la popularidad de esta raza que fue conocida, con enorme rapidez y bastante despectivamente, como «mascota para señoras mayores».

Pero el Pug no quedó falto de aprecio por mucho tiempo, gracias en parte a la reina Victoria, que era una gran aficionada a los perros y que tenía Pug, además de perros de muchas otras razas. Es probable que sus primeros Pug le fueran entregados por parientes de familias reales de la Europa continental. Parece que tuvo estos perros como perros de guardería, cosa de lo más apropiada para esta raza, que se lleva muy bien con los niños.

El príncipe de Gales regaló un Pug llamado Bully a su esposa, la reina Alejandra, antes de partir hacia un viaje por la India. Por supuesto, la reina Alejandra también era muy conocida por su afición a los perros y mostró un gran interés por los certámenes caninos de belleza, actividad crecientemente popular, especialmente entre los propietarios de Pug.

Existían dos líneas o estirpes principales en Gran Bretaña en las primeras décadas del siglo XIX. Un tabernero llamado Mr. Morrison crió Pug de color leonado claro en Waltham Green, y Lord y Lady Willoughby d’Eresby utilizaron ejemplares importados para mejorar el tipo. Existen algunas conjeturas acerca de si los d’Eresby obtuvieron dos Pug de manos de un funámbulo ruso o si se hicieron con un ejemplar de manos de una condesa húngara que vivía en Viena. De todas formas, los Pug de Morrison desempeñaron un importante papel en el desarrollo de esta raza en Gran Bretaña en sus primeros tiempos. Se ha sugerido que los perros del criadero Willoughby procedían directamente del criadero real de la reina Carlota. Con el tiempo, las dos líneas se unieron y así, hasta cierto punto, perdieron su individualidad, aunque hoy día estas características líneas todavía se nos muestran de vez en cuando.

Aunque su leyenda no tiene, necesariamente, ninguna base, los Pug de color albaricoque-leonado Lamb y Moss también tuvieron un papel destacado. Se dice que sus padres fueron capturados durante el sitio del palacio de verano en China durante la década de 1860 y parece que fueron traídos a Inglaterra por el marqués de Wellesley, donde fueron entregados a una señora llamada Mrs. St. John. Puede que esto no sea del todo cierto, ya que hay varios hechos que no concuerdan con la historia, pero lo que sí es cierto es que estos dos perros fueron los padres de Click, uno de los ejemplares más famosos de la historia de esta raza. Fue un valiosísimo semental que procreó algunas hembras excelentes y también tuvo una gran influencia sobre la raza en los EE.UU.

Pug Negros

En 1877, el color negro fue considerado como un color «nuevo» en esta raza. Siempre se ha debatido acerca del origen de los Pug negros de Lady Brassey, quien exhibió algunos ejemplares de este color en la exposición canina de belleza de Maidstone en 1886. Uno de ellos era Jack Spratt, que puede que hubiera sido adquirido por Lady Brassey durante su corto viaje a China.

De todas formas, aunque entonces se consideró que el negro era un color nuevo, sabemos, gracias a los cuadros de William Hogarth, que los ejemplares negros eran anteriores a esa época. El cuadro de Hogarth House of Cards, pintado en 1730, muestra a un Pug negro. Cien años más tarde, la reina Victoria tuvo uno con manchas blancas. Puede que éste llegara a Inglaterra procedente de China como regalo para la reina.

Se ha dicho que los Pug negros habían sido criados en Inglaterra mucho tiempo atrás, pero como habían sido criados a partir de ejemplares de color leonado y albaricoque, se consideró que se trataba de mutaciones y, por ello eran sacrificados al nacer. De todas formas, también es posible que estos perros «negros» no fueran negros verdaderos (ébano), sino tiznados, y que como resultado no fueran considerados atractivos.

En 1896, se hicieron esfuerzos por exhibir al Pug negro como si se tratara de una variedad obtenida en Inglaterra, pero a pesar del considerable apoyo, no fue permitido. Un famoso Pug negro llamado Nigger Sam era también conocido como «el Pug cantor». Parece ser que cuando se le daba un acorde con el piano o tarareando, captaba la nota y cantaba totalmente afinado. The Pug negro tenía, ciertamente, sus admiradores y se ha escrito que en 1900 dos de ellos fueron vendidos y llevados a Nueva York por un total de 350 libras esterlinas.

El Pug en el arte

Muchos artistas han incluido al pequeño y encantador Pug en sus cuadros y, gracias a ellos, contamos con un buen indicador de los ejemplares en cada época. Goya retrató algunos hermosos ejemplares de esta raza, y a partir de ellos podemos decir que su calidad era alta en España.

Reingale es otro artista conocido por pintar animales y que retrató al encantador Pug en sus obras. Muchos libros antiguos de perros incluyen grabados de esta adorable raza, aunque no todos ellos han sido apreciados por los aficionados al Pug. Aunque existen otros muchos retratos dignos de mención, Blonde and Brunette, pintado por Charles Burton Barber en 1879, es uno de mis favoritos y muestra a una joven dama absorta en su libro mientas su Pug descansa cómodamente apoyado sobre su brazo.

La porcelana de Meissen, o la de Dresde, es también famosa por sus figuras de Pug. Los perros tienen unas poses maravillosas y reales, como por ejemplo rascándose o unos cachorros mamando de su madre. Ciertamente, el Pug debe encontrarse entre las razas más populares plasmadas en porcelana y en otros objetos coleccionables. La mayoría de los del siglo XVIII alcanzan precios muy altos e incluso los del siglo XIX son cada vez más escasos. A veces se ven piezas de porcelana en las que los Pug tienen las orejas cortadas y muchos llevan campanillas en sus collares, lo que hace que resulten todavía más encantadores.

On the other hand, the Pug aparece en cajitas de rapé, recipientes para el tabaco y en pisapapeles, además de en topes de puertas. De una forma un tanto diferente, el Pug también fue retratado por los francmasones alemanes. La imagen del Pug fue utilizada como símbolo de testarudez cuando el Papa excomulgó a los francmasones en 1736.

Citas en las que aparece el Pug

The Pug es una raza tan singular y encantadora que muchos autores notables han escrito en verso y en prosa acerca de ella. En 1685 Tate habla del Pug in Cuckholds-Haven cuando Clogg se compara a sí mismo, entre otras cosas, con un Pug. Cuando entregaba una carta decía: «Querida y delicada dama, soy su pequeño periquito, su gorrión, su melenudo, su Pug, su ardilla». (Un «melenudo» era un perro Maltés).

En 1728, el poeta Gay escribió: El pobre Pug fue capturado y llevado a la ciudad, Allí fue vendido. Como se envidió su suerte, Hecho cautivo en la habitación de una señora.

Y poco después, en 1740, David Garrick habla del Pug in Lethe AEsop in the Shades. A Mrs. Tatoo se le describe como a alguien que «tiene un perro Pug y odia a los clérigos».

Gente famosa y sus Pug

Muchas personas muy respetadas y famosas fueron devotos propietarios de Pug durante los siglos XIX y XX. Entre ellos se encontraban la reina Victoria, que tuvo 36 Pug a lo largo de su vida, la reina Alejandra y el duque y la duquesa de Windsor.

Sotheby’s, de Nueva York, vendió una fabulosa colección de objetos del hogar parisino del duque y la duquesa, y en la sala de licitaciones aparecieron unos 120 Pug para ser subastados. Muchos objetos de recuerdo en los que aparecía este perro alcanzaron precios espléndidos, y un cuadro de un Pug con una muñeca japonesa alcanzó los 36.800 dólares. Incluso una almohada bordada que mostraba la cabeza de un Pug se adjudicó por más de 13.000 dólares y por un grabado de plata del duque de Windsor con el Pug Dizzy se pagaron 18.400 dólares. Un cuadro de un Pug negro sentado en una silla amarilla se vendió por 26.450 dólares.

El Pug en los EE.UU.

En los EE.UU. the Pug fue aceptado para su inscripción en el libro de orígenes genealógico del American Kennel Club en 1885. Allí, al igual que en otros países, se encuentra clasificado en el grupo de perros miniatura. Para la FCI esta raza forma parte del grupo de perros de compañía. La raza es popular como mascota en los Estados Unidos, donde también ha sobresalido en el ring de los certámenes caninos de belleza. En 1981 Ch. Dhandys Favorite Woodchuck (propiedad de Robert A. Hauslohner) fue el primer ejemplar de esta raza en ganar el premio al Mejor de la Exposición en el certamen canino de belleza del Westminster Kennel Club. Hasta la fecha éste ha sido el único Pug que ha conseguido este gran triunfo.

If you want to know more about the Pug te recomendamos la publicación de la editorial Hispano Europea Pug Serie Excellence:

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